International Overdose Awareness Day (IOAD) is a global event held on August 31st each year and aims to raise awareness of overdose and reduce the stigma of a drug-related death. It also acknowledges the grief felt by families and friends remembering those who have met with death or permanent injury as a result of drug overdose. IOAD spreads the message that the tragedy of overdose death is preventable. The first International Overdose Awareness Day was organized in 2001 by two harm reduction advocates in Melbourne, Australia. They organized a local event and give silver ribbons out for anyone who wished to commemorate a friend, partner or family member who had passed away. Any member of the community, even if not directly affected, could wear a ribbon to offer their condolences to those who had suffered from an overdose. Since then, hundreds of other NGOs and human rights organizations have become involved in International Overdose Awareness Day. Though every participant approaches the day in their own way, the campaign is centered around the following goals:
- To provide an opportunity for people to publicly mourn for loved ones, some for the first time, without feeling guilt or shame.
- To include the greatest number of people in Overdose Awareness Day events, and encourage non-denominational involvement.
- To give community members information about the issue of fatal and nonfatal overdose.
- To send a strong message to current and former drug users that they are valued.
- To stimulate discussion about overdose prevention and drug policy.
- To provide basic information on the range of support services that exists in the local community.
- To prevent and reduce drug-related harm by supporting evidence-based policy and practice.
- To remind all of the risks of overdose.
Stories and TestimonialsAnonymous, Reed College: I needed naloxone HCl twice before reaching the age of twenty. Without the good fortune of being with individuals that are knowledgeable about overdose, my life, like that of many other drug users, would have been unnecessarily cut short. International Overdose Awareness Day illustrates that drug users’ lives matter by being an opportunity to educate one’s friends, family, self, and lawmakers about the prevention of and proper responses to overdose. Hopefully our collective actions will one day lead to a world where every overdose is met with the proper medical attention and no life will ever be cut short due to the decision to partake in substance use. Rhana Hashemi, UC Berkeley: Growing up in a world that was hardly drug free, my peers and I were left vulnerable to the harms associated with uninformed drug use. Most of my peers knew little to no information about the substances they would experiment with, and a few faced irreversible consequences. I could not sit around and wait for adults and policymakers to realize that zero-tolerance drug education and policies that prohibited harm reduction interventions were failing my peers and our communities, so I joined SSDP to find a like minded group of students who were ready to take action through grass-root initiatives. Since then, I have felt nothing but support and empowerment, I believe that as an individual, I can meet the needs of my community as a catalyst for sensible policies that promote safety and liberty for all.
Facts About Overdose
- According to the 2016 World Drug Report, there were 207,400 drug-related worldwide deaths in 2014. Overdose accounted for up to a half of all deaths, and opioids were involved in most cases.
- When averaging out data from previous world drug reports, approximately 187,000 people die each year from overdose, meaning that in 2014 the number of deaths was significantly higher than the average.
- In the United States, more people died from drug overdoses in 2014 than in any other year on record. Deaths from drug overdose are up among both men and women, all races, and adults of nearly all ages. (Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Accidental drug overdose is the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States for people between the ages of 35-54 and the second leading cause of injury-related death for young people. Drug overdose deaths now exceed those attributable to firearms, homicides or HIV/AIDS.
- 2014 saw a 6.5% increase from the number of drug-related deaths in 2013.
- Driven largely by an increase in addiction to prescription painkillers and heroin, deaths from drug overdoses have jumped in nearly every county across the United States.
- The largest concentrations of overdose in the United States occur in Appalachia and the Southwest.
- Deaths from overdose are reaching similar levels to the HIV epidemic during its peak.
- Though historically metropolitan areas have had higher rates of overdose, rural areas now outpace that rate.
How is Overdose Preventable?As drug-related overdoses continue to increase around the world, it is imperative that we find medical, educational, and policy solutions that will help save lives. An approach to overdose grounded in harm reduction and scientific evidence is the best way to reduce the amounts of preventable deaths in the United States and the rest of the world.
NaloxoneNaloxone, also known as Narcan, is a low-cost overdose reversal drug that was first approved by the FDA in 1971. It is an opioid antagonist that blocks the brain cell receptors activated by heroin and other opioids, temporarily restoring normal breathing within two to three minutes of administration and buys the victim of an overdose more time until medical assistance arrives. It is important to remember that Naloxone alone does not save lives, and to always call 911 when you administer naloxone to someone so they can get the medical attention they need.
- Though the number of overdoses in the United States is on the rise, the increasing availability of naloxone has resulted in over 26,000 lives saved through drug overdose reversal between 1996 and 2014. (Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Naloxone distribution for laypersons is currently available in 42 states and the District of Columbia.
- Most laypersons who reported using the kits to reverse an overdose were persons who use drugs, and many of the reported reversals involved heroin overdoses.
- According to a 2013 cost-benefit analysis published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, one life could be saved for every 164 naloxone kits that are distributed. Currently, there are 650 naloxone distribution locations throughout the United States.
911 Good Samaritan PoliciesAlso known as Medical Amnesty Policies, these are life-saving measures that enable people to make responsible decisions by shielding them from punishment when they call for medical help during an emergency relating to alcohol or other drugs. Since the threat of punitive policies can often cause hesitation during confusing and stressful situations, the existence of a Call 911 Good Samaritan Policy is essential to ensuring that people are able to stay alive and receive help when they are in trouble.
- According to SSDP’s research, there are currently over 200 college campuses with some form of a Good Samaritan Policy on the books
- Most overdose deaths actually occur one to three hours after the victim has initially ingested or injected drugs. The chances of surviving an overdose usually depends on how quickly someone received medical attention.
- 31 states and the District of Columbia currently have Good Samaritan Policies on the books.
Evidence-Based Drug EducationProviding practical, life-saving information to people who use opioids can dramatically reduce the likelihood of fatal overdose. For example, a major factor in opioid overdoses is the mixing of different drugs such as alcohol or cocaine when using opioids. In New Mexico, the state has undertaken an outreach and education initiative to inform people who use drugs about the risks of using multiple substances simultaneously. The results have been a small decrease in drug-related deaths among young people. It is important that when educating young people about the causes of overdose, we take an approach that rejects the zero tolerance model and embraces harm reduction education.
- SSDP’s Just Say Know Peer Education program seeks to empower students in our network to analyze the relationship between drug policy and drug use by providing evidence-based drug information, teaching students to recognize and address dangerous behaviors and unhealthy attitudes, and promoting prosocial and harm reduction oriented behaviors and attitudes. Check out the training curriculum to see how you can become a peer educator on your campus.
- It’s not just drug users who need to be educated about overdose. Doctors and caregivers must become more aware about the effects opioid painkillers can have on patients, and ensure that they are providing patients with all the information they need to avoid abusing the drug.