|Utilizing participatory research methods and program development methods should be further highlighted as youth are key stakeholders in the interventions discussed in the standards.
Some references with regard to this include:
- D’Emidio-Caston, M., & Brown, J. H. (1998). The other side of the story: Student narratives on the California Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Education Programs. Evaluation Review, 22, 95-117. doi: 10.1177/0193841X9802200105
Consideration for Peer to Peer strategies for prevention interventions:
- Zeldin, S., McDaniel, A. K., Topitzes, D., & Calvert, M. (2000). Youth in decision-making: A study of the impacts of youth on adults and organizations. Chevy Chase, MD: National 4-H Council.
- Cuijpers, P. (2002). Peer-led and adult-led school drug prevention: A meta-analytic comparison. Journal of Drug Education, 32, 107-119. doi: 10.2190/LPN9-KBDC-HPVB-JPTM
It may be useful to further highlight the concept of an integrated approach to prevention, and the need for addressing specific socio-cultural and community-based needs. In other words, avoiding a “one-size-fits-all” approach that may not be effective for some populations, and calling for further research on interventions that can be adapted to meet those needs:
- Midford, R., Munro, G., McBride, N., Snow, P., & Ladzinski, U. (2002). Principles that underpin effective school-based drug education. Journal of Drug Education, 32, 363-386
Consider updating the language used in the standards from “substance abuse” to “substance misuse” in order to better clarify and operationalize the standards:
- Nation, M., Crusto, C., Wandersman, A., Kumpfer, K. L., Seybolt, D., Morrisey-Kane, E., & Davino, K. (2003). What works in prevention: Principles of effective prevention programs. American Psychologist, 58, 449-456. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.6-7.449
Lastly, it would be helpful to consider how these standards are disseminated once developed. There are programs that are still being considered the “standard” in the U.S., despite potentially falling into those which have “Characteristics associated with no or negative prevention outcomes.” As such, ensuring key stakeholders at all levels of prevention implementation are receiving these standards is important to ensure effective programming is being considered over ineffective programming.
- Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health. (2016)). Glossary p.3-4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.